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Adoption of Basmati-385: implications for time conflicts in the rice-wheat cropping systems of Pakistan's Punjab

Author: Sharif, M.
Author: Longmire, J.
Author: Kh. Shafiqul Islam
Author: Ahmad, Z.
Year: 1989
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10883/831
Abstract: The traditional basmati rice-wheat cropping system of Pakistan's Punjab involves major time conflicts between the harvesting date of rice and the planting date of wheat. The lengthy maturity period of traditional basmati has led to wheat often being planted late in the crop rotation, with consequent losses of wheat yield. It has been estimated that wheat yields decline on average at 1 percent/ha/day as a result of late planting. In this report the implications of widespread adoption of the new input-responsive and shorter maturity rice variety, Basmati-385, are analyzed. There has been a very rapid adoption of this variety which was first made available to farmers in 1985. Since then it has been adopted extremely rapidly to cover almost three quarters of the rice area planted in the main rice zone of the Punjab by 1988. The rate of adoption has been higher than that observed during Pakistan's green revolution with semi-dwarf wheats and IRRI rices in the late 1960s. o A survey of 144 farmers in the rice zone of the Punjab was undertaken in March, 1988 to assess the implications of this widespread adoption on timeliness of wheat plantings. The survey covered three main rice-growing Districts, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura and Sialkot. Where farmers had more than one variety, data on Basmati-385 and the other main variety were obtained. Farmers were asked about their initial sources of awareness of Basmati-385 and their sources of seed of the new variety. By far the majority of farmers (68%) became aware of the new variety from other farmers and 56% obtained their seed from other farmers. Yields of Basmati-385 and of other main rice varieties in 1987 were obtained from the farmers. The mean yield of Basmati-385 was 3 t/ha, some 48% higher than that of Basmati-370. The mean yield of IRRI varieties was also about 3 t/ha. Data on use of key inputs were also obtained. Generally, Basmati-385 received higher levels of fertilizer and pesticides than Basmati-370 but less than applied to IRRI varieties. The prices received by farmers for the main rice varieties were analyzed. The average price of Basmati-385 was 135 Rs/40 kgs, only 4 Rs/40 kgs below the average price of the high-quality Basmati-370. IRRI prices were just over half those of the basmati varieties. Maturity periods were estimated as the number of days from transplanting of rice to completion of rice harvest. In 1987, Basmati-385 matured 14 days earlier than Basmati-370 on average. IRRI varieties matured only a few days earlier than the new basmati variety. Factors affecting the date of rice harvesting and turnaround time from rice to wheat were analyzed. The date of completion of rice harvest largely was influenced by the date of transplanting of rice and by variety planted. On average, turnaround time from rice to wheat was about 7 days longer following earlier maturing varieties (Basmati-385 and IRRI varieties) than the later maturing one (Basmati-370). With longer turnaround time, farmers undertook more ploughings and spent more time in seedbed preparation, in anticipation of better weed control and higher wheat yields. Thus wheat after Basmati-385 was planted only 6 days earlier than wheat after Basmati-370 on average. The differences in profitability of the main rice-wheat rotations were calculated. Generally, gross returns (net of harvesting and marketing costs) were almost 3300 Rs/ha higher for Basmati-385 than with Basmati-370. Additional benefits from improved timeliness of wheat were estimated to be around 540 Rs/ha. With a slightly higher use of inputs of Basmati-385, overall profitability was over 3,000 Rs/ha higher for this variety in rotation with wheat, compared with Basmati-370 in the cropping system. The profitability for the Basmati-385 rotation was estimated to be more than 4500 Rs/ha above that involving IRRI varieties. The above differences in profitability (including improved timeliness of wheat planting) explain why farmers have so rapidly adopted Basmati-385. However, this adoption has not led to the gains in improved timeliness that were expected. In part this stems from substitution of Basmati-385 for the earlier maturing IRRI varieties. It also stems from farmers not taking full advantage of improved timeliness resulting from substituting Basmati-385 for Basmati-370. This emphasizes the need to continue to place high priority on research to shorten turnaround time from rice to wheat, especially with zero tillage technology, mechanical harvesting and alternative weed and water management strategies. Finally, concern has been expressed about declining productivity of the rice-wheat cropping system in Pakistan's Punjab. The results of this study imply that a significant increase in productivity in basmati rice has recently occurred. Other implications of the adoption of Basmati-385 need to be further studied.
Format: PDF
Language: English
Publisher: CIMMYT
Publisher: PARC
Serie: PARC/CIMMYT Paper
Copyright: CIMMYT manages Intellectual Assets as International Public Goods. The user is free to download, print, store and share this work. In case you want to translate or create any other derivative work and share or distribute such translation/derivative work, please contact CIMMYT-Knowledge-Center@cgiar.org indicating the work you want to use and the kind of use you intend; CIMMYT will contact you with the suitable license for that purpose.
Type: Report
Country focus: Pakistan
Region: South Asia
Place of Publication: Islamabad (Pakistan)
Pages: 31 pages
Serie Number: 89-1
Agrovoc: RICE
Agrovoc: WHEAT
Agrovoc: CROPPING SYSTEMS
Agrovoc: MATURITY
Agrovoc: SOWING DATE


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  • Socioeconomics
    Including topics such as farming systems, markets, impact & targeting, innovations, and GIS
  • Sustainable Intensification
    Sustainable intensification agriculture including topics on cropping systems, agronomy, soil, mechanization, precision agriculture, etc.
  • Wheat
    Wheat - breeding, phytopathology, physiology, quality, biotech

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