||The Sustainable Intensification of Maize-Legume cropping systems for food security in Eastern and Southern Africa (SIMLESA) is a multi-stakeholder collaborative research programme managed by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) and implemented by national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Malawi and Mozambique with backstopping inputs from other partners. The programme focuses on leveraging science and technology to develop and deliver technological and institutional innovations in relation to maize-legume production systems. In turn it is envisaged that these will make significant measurable positive changes in the livelihoods of all categories of smallholder farmers. The aim of SIMLESA program is to improve farm-level food security, in the context of climate risk and change, through the development of more resilient, profitable and sustainable farming system that overcome food insecurity for significant numbers of farm families in eastern and southern Africa. SIMLESA Program, is being funded by the Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research (ACIAR) launched in March 2010 and expanded in April 2012 (with funding support from AusAID) to cater for three additional regions in Ethiopia,. SIMLESA Program falls under the African Food Security Initiative (AFSI) that was launched in 2009/2010 by the Australian Government to assist selected African countries reduce poverty and eliminate hunger as part of fulfilment of Millennium Development Goal Number 1 (MDG1). It is aligned within the African Union (AU) initiated and led made-in-Africa solution known as the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP1). CAADP was established as part of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), and endorsed by the African Union Assembly in July 2003. SIMLESA is led and managed by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), as the commissioned organisation. CIMMYT is assisted by the following in implementing the program: the national agricultural research systems (NARS) in five eastern and southern African countries; Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA), International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT); Agriculture Research Council (ARC)-SA; Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI), in association with Queensland Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, (QDEEDI); and Murdoch University. SIMLESA related activities have been initiated in four spillover countries (Botswana, Rwanda, South Sudan and Uganda) for wider impact. The leadership of the Queensland research component has been transferred from DEEDI to QAAFI. The main thrust of the SIMLESA program is increasing farm-level food security, productivity and incomes through promotion of maize-legume intercropping systems, in the context of reduced climate risk and change. SIMLESA Program is envisaged to reach 650,000 small farming households in the five countries over a period of 10 years.