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Nitrogen leaching and soil nitrate, and ammonium levels in an irrigated wheat system in northern Mexico

Autor: Riley, W.J.
Autor: Ortiz-Monasterio, I.
Autor: Matson, P.A.
Año: 2001
ISSN: 1385-1314
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10883/3275
Resumen: Nitrate leaching from agricultural soils can represent a substantial loss of fertilizer nitrogen (N), but a large variation in losses has been reported. We report N leaching losses under four N fertilizer treatments and two farmer's fields in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico. In these irrigated wheat systems, farmers typically apply 250 kg N ha−1 as anhydrous ammonia (knifed in) or urea(broadcast), with 75% applied directly before planting and 25% at the time of the first post-planting irrigation. Over two wheat seasons, we compared typical farmer's practices to alternatives that applied less N and more closely timed fertilizer application to plant demand. Field lysimeter measurements and predictions from a water transport simulation model (called NLOSS) were used to estimate the amount of N leached over the season. Approximately 5 and 2% of the applied N leached below the root zone with the typical farmer's practice in 1995?96 and 1997?98,respectively. The alternative treatments reduced N leaching losses by 60 to95% while producing comparable economic returns to the farmer. Leaching losses from the two farmer's fields were substantially higher (about 14and26% of the applied N). Our results indicate that the typical farmer's practice leads to relatively high N leaching losses, and that alternative practices synchronizing fertilizer application with crop demand can substantially reduce these losses.
Lenguaje: English
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Tipo: Article
Pais: Mexico
Paginas: 223-236
No de Revista: 3
Revista: Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems
Volumen de la Revista: 61
DOI: 10.1023/A:1013758116346
Palabras Claves: Triticum
Palabras Claves: Nitrogen
Palabras Claves: Leaching
Palabras Claves: Soil chemistry
Palabras Claves: Ammonium nitrate
Palabras Claves: Irrigation systems
Palabras Claves: Mexico
URI del Editor : http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1013758116346#


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