||Grain hardness plays an important role in determining both milling performance and quality of the end-use products produced from common or bread wheat. The objective of this study was to characterize allelic variations at the Pina and Pinb loci in Xinjiang wheat germplasm for further understanding the mechanisms involved in endosperm texture formation, and the status of grain texture in Chinese bread wheat. A total of 291 wheat cultivars, including 56 landraces, and 95 introduced and 140 locally improved cultivars, grown in Xinjiang, were used for SKCS measurement and molecular characterization. Among the harvested grain samples, 185 (63.6%), 40 (13.7%), and 66 (22.7%) were classified as hard, mixed and soft, respectively. Eight different genotypes for the Pina and Pinb loci were identified, including seven previously reported genotypes, viz., Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1a, Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1b, Pina-D1b/Pinb-D1a, Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1p, Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1q, Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1aa, Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1ab, and a novel Pinb allele, Pinb-D1ac. This new allele, detected in Kashibaipi (local landrace) and Red Star (from Russia) has a double mutation at the 257th (G to A substitution) and 382nd (C to T substitution) nucleotide positions of the coding region. Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1b, and Pinb-D1p were the most common alleles in Xinjiang wheat germplasm, with frequencies of 14.3%, 38.1% and 28.6% in hard textured landraces, 25.5%, 56.9% and 11.8% in hard introduced cultivars, and 24.8%, 47.8% and 26.5% in hard locally improved cultivars, respectively. The restriction enzymes ApaI, SapI, BstXI and SfaNI were used to identify Pinb-D1ab or Pinb-D1ac, Pinb-D1b, Pinb-D1e and Pinb-Dg, respectively, by digesting PCR products of the Pinb gene. The unique grain hardness distribution in Xinjiang bread wheat, as well as the CAPs markers for identification of the Pinb alleles provided useful information for breeding wheat cultivars with optimum grain textures.