||This study reviews socioeconomic and technical factors that affect the adoption of improved maize and fertilizer in the Embu District, Kenya and the role of credit in both. A total of 127 farmers (82 adopters and 45 non-adopters) were interviewed for the study during the long and short rainy seasons in 1998 in the Nembure, Runyenjes, and Kieni Divisions in Embu District. Most farmers in the study area used basal fertilizer. However, the use of fertilizer was below recommended levels. More adopters used hired labor and had greater access to credit and extension services than non-adopters. The Pioneer H3253 variety and 2-kg seed packages were found to be most popular among adopters. Agroecological zones, gender, manure use, hiring of labor, and extension services were found to be statistically significant in explaining adoption of improved varieties. Similarly, agroecological zone, gender, manure use, hiring of labor, and extension services were important in explaining the amounts of basal fertilizers farmers used.