||The USAID funded project 'Food Security in Bangladesh: Improving Wheat, Maize and Papaya Production, and Impacts of Arsenic Contamination' was designed to enhance food production through agronomic research and extension to improve the efficiency and profitability of maize, wheat and papaya crops, to help ensure sustainable use of Bangladesh's natural resources, including water resources, and to help diversify diets. The project activities were to contribute to the achievement of enhanced diversity in agricultural production in target areas which was part of USAID/Bangladesh's strategic objective 8: Improved food security for vulnerable groups. The project was managed and implemented by CIMMYT in close cooperation with Cornell University and Texas A and M University. A wide array of national partners were closely involved in the project, including Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), Wheat Research Center (WRC)/Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Soil Resources Development Institute (SRDI), various universities, NGOs, private entrepreneurs for agricultural equipment, and the farming community. The project concentrated its efforts on the following six overall broad objectives: Strengthen partnerships between the National Agricultural Research System (NARS) - NGOs - Private Sector - CIMMYT - and US Universities to achieve the goal of food security through wheat, maize and papaya production, saving scarce natural resources and for better human nutrition. Assist the Wheat Research Center, Horticulture Research Center and Plant Breeding Division of BARI in their efforts to increase the productivity of wheat, maize and papaya in Bangladesh. Improve rice-wheat cropping system research activities in Bangladesh and strengthen the exchange of research experiences in south Asia. Offer leadership in the assessment of impacts of arsenic contamination on food security in Bangladesh. Build human capacity in Bangladesh to address food security issues in the targeted institutions. Assist the Government of Bangladesh in technology and extension strategies where appropriate for the agricultural sector, to sustain self-sufficiency of food production. The project began in July 2002 and ended in June 2007. Originally the following eight components were developed and implemented: Human Resource Development. Facilitation and Promotion for Adoption of Mechanization by Growers. GIS - Bangladesh Country Almanac. Whole Family Training in Maize. Papaya Improvement through Ringspot Viral Disease Resistance. Impacts of Arsenic Contamination on Agricultural Sustainability and Food Quality. Agro-food Nutrition Program in Chakaria. Monitoring and Evaluation of the Programs. However, most of the activities in Human Resource Development, and Monitoring and Evaluation were implemented in conjunction with and in support of other components and are reported here under those components. Most parts of the project ended in June 2006, although where possible small follow-up activities continued to June 2007 with residual funding. The Agro-food Nutrition Program in Chakaria ran up to June 2005. The component on Ringspot Virus Resistant Papaya continued for the full five years of the project up to June 2007. Complementary USAID-sanctioned Government of Bangladesh support to wheat research and promotion was provided to WRC/BARI in a WRC Bridging Project. The activities of the wheat bridging project are not reported here.