||This study set out to consolidate extstmg data and literature on the gender roles and responsibilities performed by men and women in maize and wheat dominated cropping systems in Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. In each country, the cropping systems of maize and wheat were characterized to facilitate an understanding of the various tasks undertaken on the farm. Qualitative and limited quantitative data on the division of labour, access and control of farm resources, and the decision making process in each farming system was documented. This study clearly shows that women's contribution to agricultural production in Eastern Africa is significant. It also shows that the roles of women and men in maize and wheat production are complimentary. In all the East African Countries studied, with the exception of Ethiopia, women participate most in the various farm activities, especially the nonmechanized activities. Women participate in time-consuming and labour intensive work in maize and wheat based farming systems across the region. Their exact contribution in terms of time, effort and income have yet to be quantified. Operations that are not yet mechanized such as planting of maize, weeding, harvesting and post-harvest operations occupy a significant proportion of women's time. However, women in all the four countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) do not participate in decision making (i.e. control of own income, household income and other farm resources). There are a feww exceptions in North Wollo in Ethiopia and Illolo village in Tanzania where women participate in decision making. In addtion, women in female headed households (de Jure) make virtually all decisions on the farm. While men engage in capital intensive activities on relatively large farms, women are more concentrated on subsistence food production. Their participation in maize and wheat farming systems can be made more efficient ifthe constraints facing them are alleviated. These include women's limited access to and control over productive resources such as land, credit, agricultural inputs, technology (tools and machinery), as well as support services such as extension, information, training and marketing. This gender pattern in terms of division of labour, access to and control of production resources( such as credit, technology, education) and access to and control of benefits has major implications for adoption and effective management of maize and wheat production technologies.