||High-molecular-weight glutenin (HMW-GS) and low-molecular-weight glutenin (LMW-GS) subunits play an important role in determining wheat quality. To clarify the contribution of each subunit/allele to processing quality, 25 near-isogenic lines with different HMW-GS and LMW-GS compositions grown at two locations during the 2010 cropping season were used to investigate the effects of allelic variation on milling parameters, mixograph properties, raw white Chinese noodle (RWCN) and northern style Chinese steamed bread (NSCSB) qualities. The results showed that Glu-B1 and Glu-B3 made a large contribution to determining mixograph properties and processing quality, respectively. Subunit pairs 17 + 18 and 5 + 10, and alleles Glu-A3b, Glu-A3d, Glu-B3g and Glu-D3f made significant contributions to mixograph properties and no significant difference was detected on most parameters of RWCN and NSCSB for the allelic variation of HMW-GS and LMW-GS. The allelic interactions among glutenin loci had significant effects on wheat quality. The line with 1, 17 + 18, 2 + 12, Glu-A3c, Glu-B3b, Glu-D3c associated with superior mixograph properties, the line with 1, 7 + 9, 2 + 12, Glu-A3c, Glu-B3d, Glu-D3c had superior viscoelasticity of RWCN, and the line with 1, 7 + 9, 2 + 12, Glu-A3e, Glu-B3b, Glu-D3c had the highest total score of NSCSB. These results provide useful information for genetic improvement of the qualities of traditional Chinese wheat products.