||Thirty-three cultivars and advanced lines originated from China, Mexico, and Australia were sown in four environments in Chinese spring wheat regions to investigate the association between gluten protein fractions determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and dough properties and northern-style Chinese steamed bread (CSB) quality. The genotypes were divided into two groups of 10 and 23 entries with and without the 1B/1R translocation, respectively. 1B/1R translocation lines had significantly high amounts of o-gliadins, and low levels of glutenin and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS), but no significant difference in dough properties and CSB quality from non-translocation lines. The association between protein fractions and dough properties, and CSB quality largely depended upon the presence of 1B/1R translocation. Gliadin contributed more in quantity to flour protein content (FPC) than glutenin, while glutenin and its fractions contributed more to dough strength and CSB quality. Among non-translocation lines, moderate to high correlation coefficients between quantified glutenin and its fractions, and farinograph development time (DT, r ¼ 0:85–0.92) and stability (ST, r ¼ 0:81–0.93), extensograph maximum resistance (Rmax, r ¼ 0:90–0.93), CSB stress relaxation (SR, r ¼ 0:55–0.61) and CSB score (r ¼ 0:56–0.62), were observed. Gliadin:glutenin ratios showed significant and negative associations with dough properties and CSB quality. Correlation coefficients between gliadin:glutenin, gliadin:HMW-GS, gliadin:LMW-GS ratios, and CSB score were -0.79, -0.73, and -0.79 among non-translocation lines, respectively. HMW-GS and LMW-GS, x-type HMW-GS and y-type HMW-GS contributed similarly to dough properties and CSB quality for non-translocation lines. Weak correlations between protein fractions and dough properties, and CSB quality were observed among translocation lines. This information should be useful for improvement of dough properties and CSB quality.