||Two hundred and forty two Chinese wheat cultivars and lines from autumn-sown wheat regions were used to analyze the genetic variation of the water-soluble pentosans (WSP), water-insoluble pentosans (WIP), total pentosans (TP), and the solvent retention capacities (SRC). The results indicated that variation of WSP, WIP and TP was 0.72 % - 1.81 %, 2.92 % - 6.93 %, and 4.42 % - 8.11 %, respectively (Table 1). WSP content of hard wheat was higher than that of soft wheat , while WIP content of soft wheat was higher than that of hard wheat. Slight difference was observed in TP between hard wheat and soft wheat. The contents of WSP, WIP and TP were positively and significantly correlated with grain hardness, WSP and WIP were positively and significantly correlated with mixograph parameters ( Table 3). Significant variation among SRC were observed of genotypes, the variation of water SRC, sodium carbonate SRC, sucrose SRC, and lactic acid SRC were 32.51 % - 79.52 %, 50.00 % - 139.99 %, 11.15 % - 123.06 %, and 67101 % - 140196 %, respectively ( Table 2). Hard wheat showed higher SRC than soft wheat. Water SRC was positively and significantly correlated with hardness and flour particle size, and sodium carbonate SRC was also positively and significantly correlated with them, and the correlation coefficients were 0.66, 0.64, 0.55 and 0.48, respectively1 Lactic acid SRC was positively and significantly correlated with SDS sedimentation volume, mixing time, and mixing tolerance, the correlation coefficients were 0.71, 0.73 and 0.62, respectively (Table 4). SRC is a new method for evaluating wheat qualities, which can be directly used for early generation selection in breeding programs.