||Lentil (Lens culinaris) is one of the most important legumes of Nepal. It is grown mainly in the cool/winter season and accounts for 63% of total pulse area (0.32 million ha) and 67% of total pulse production (0.4 million MT) in Nepal. The national average lentil yield is 1.23 t/ha, which is at the top of all legume productivity in Nepal (MoAD, 2015/16). Lentil is a rich source of protein (22-28%) and high micronutrients such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), which are important for increasing immunity and maintaining healthy metabolism in humans (Frederick et al., 2006). Apart from its high dietary value, it is also an export commodity crop of Nepal, which is among the top five lentil exporters in the world. Nepal’s lentil productivity (1.23 t/ha) is the second highest in comparison to its neighboring countries such as China (2.37 t/ha), Bangladesh (1.02 t/ha), India (0.68 t/ha) and Pakistan (0.49 t/ha) (FAOSTAT, 2016). However, there is a huge yield gap of at least 0.8 tons between the national average and the achievable yield (SQCC, 2016/17) due to the lack of improved varieties resilient to both biotic and abiotic stresses, poor seed production and marketing, lack of awareness and low adoption of improved management practices by farmers and seed growers. In the 2017/18 lentil cropping season, some seed companies were unable to sell improved seeds due to low profit margins and farmers’ traditional use of farm-saved seeds of inferior quality, which discourages companies from carrying seeds of high yielding varieties (NSAF baseline survey, 2017). In addition, the retail grain price of lentil varies hugely from district to district as well as in places close to the Indian border, compared to inland markets. Therefore, a deep understanding of market forces and scenario analysis by relevant stakeholders is critical for establishing a strong lentil market information system. This would help curb the challenges of Nepal’s volatile and unpredictable lentil market. The stability of the lentil market system will eventually motivate grain and seed producers as well as other value chain actors. To address the intricate challenges and harness potential opportunities, the National Grain Legume Research Program (NGLRP), in collaboration with the Feed the Future Nepal Seed and Fertilizer Project (NSAF), will hold a national workshop on lentil productivity and profitability in Nepal on 20-21 Feb., 2018 with the following objectives and expectations.