||The transition from vegetative to reproductive phase, flowering per se, floral organ development, panicle structure and morphology, meiosis, pollination and fertilization, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and fertility restoration, and grain development are the main reproductive traits. Unlocking their genetic insights will enable plant breeders to manipulate these traits in cereal germplasm enhancement. Multiple genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting flowering (phase transition, photoperiod and vernalization, flowering per se), panicle morphology and grain development have been cloned, and gene expression research has provided new information about the nature of complex genetic networks involved in the expression of these traits. Molecular biology is also facilitating the identification of diverse CMS sources in hybrid breeding. Few Rf (fertility restorer) genes have been cloned in maize, rice and sorghum. DNA markers are now used to assess the genetic purity of hybrids and their parental lines, and to pyramid Rf or tms (thermosensitive male sterility) genes in rice. Transgene(s) can be used to create de novo CMS trait in cereals. The understanding of reproductive biology facilitated by functional genomics will allow a better manipulation of genes by crop breeders and their potential use across species through genetic transformation.