||Most intercropping research has been conducted on experiment stations with the aim of proving or understanding the efficiency or advantage of intercropping systems, or of designing new systems on the basis of biological principles. However, experiment station trials often make poor predictions of the best varieties, fertiliser rates and application methods, population densities, and sometimes disease control techniques for use by smallholder farmers in their intercrops. A workshop, Research Methods for Cereal/Legume Intercropping, was held in Lilongwe during January 1989. The workshop participants reached the consensus that much intercropping research should aim to offer farmers improvements on their existing intercropping systems and that to do this more research should be conducted on-farm using a production problem orientation. Many presenters and discussants at the workshop emphasised that most of the general issues and techniques related to farmer oriented on-farm intercrop research are similar to those for other forms of on-farm agronomic research. There are however some aspects that differ. These special considerations, rather than the similarities, are emphasised here. This summary draws on presentations and discussion at the workshop in Malawi. Emphasis is on concepts and methods for on-farm adaptive intercrop research and little attention is paid to specific intercropping experimental factors, such as genotypes, weeds, fertiliser, and plant spatial arrangements. No attempt has been made to address other relevant issues not covered in that workshop. Also, some of the points made here did not enjoy unanimous endorsement at the workshop.