||Karnal bunt (KB) is a seedborne disease of wheat caused by Tilletia indica. The disease is known to occur in parts of India, Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, Mexico and the USA, generally characterized by a semiarid climate with hot summers and cool winters. The main host of T. indica is bread wheat; durum wheat and triticale are less susceptible. Plants are infected within 2-3 weeks of heading. The primary sources of inoculum are seed and teliospores present in soil. Teliospores germinate at or near the soil surface in response to temperature (8- 20°C) and moisture (high relative humidity associated with light rain showers and cloudy weather). Teliospores can be carried over long distances by wind, and can pass through the digestive tracts of animals undamaged. However, the main mode of international spread is through infected or contaminated wheat seeds. Typically, the infection is noticed after harvest, and only a few kernels within the spike are affected by KB. Kernels are usually partially infected; hence the disease is also known as partial bunt.