||Although identifying crop production problems, setting research priorities, and identifying appropriate technological alternatives are fundamental to the success of a research program, these activities rarely receive the attention warranted. In this Wheat Special Report, a simple three-step procedure for defining research needs is illustrated using a case study for wheat production in the High Valley of Mexico. The major agronomic limitations identified were soil fertility, variety, weed control and plant stand. Analysis of the problems highlighted that additional research was not always necessary to recommend changes in cultural practices. For example, problems of variable plant stand and high seeding rates could be directly reduced by changing the method of seed incorporation. The methodology highlights the advantages of a multidisciplinary approach to ensure priority problems are selected based on a predetermined set of criteria, namely: problems 1) are of economic and/or social importance, 2) are relevant to the client (Le., the farmer), 3) consider environmental and long term issues, and 4) have viable solutions.