||The Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa (DTMA) initiative aims to address the challenge of combating the impacts of drought on people’s livelihoods, food security and economic development. It links the efforts of several organizations and projects supporting the development and dissemination of drought tolerant maize in 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The initiative is supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Howard G. Buffett Foundation, and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). DTMA also benefits from the long-term, generous support of core donors to CIMMYT. For further information about the initiative, refer to the project website (http://dtma.cimmyt.org). Developing, distributing and cultivating drought tolerant maize varieties is a highly relevant intervention to improve food security, reduce vulnerability to climate change and dependence on food aid in SSA. However, for this to succeed, it needs to be grounded in the local reality based on good understanding of limiting biophysical and socioeconomic constraints and opportunities for change. Each of the participating countries was therefore supported to conduct a community assessment and household surveys in the target areas. This report presents the findings from initial analysis of household survey data which will serve as a baseline on production and economic conditions of smallholder maize farmers and presents the main characteristics of farm households and production systems in the Machakos and Makueni districts of Kenya. This country study received financial support from the DTMA project.